International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 1308-951X

Volume 14 Issue 3 (September 2023)

Issue Information

Issue Information

pp. i - vi   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijrte.2023.598



Original Articles

Early Childhood Teachers Emotional Intelligence, Efficacy, Psychological Well-Being and Teacher Burnout

Hüseyin Kotaman & Derya Evran

pp. 1 - 14   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijrte.2023.598.01


The purpose of this study is to examine relation among early childhood teachers’ emotional intelligence, their teacher efficacy and psychological well-being and impact of these concepts on their burnout. The participants consist of 342 early childhood teachers from different cities of Turkey. The participants responded to the Turkish version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Educator Survey, Turkish version of Teacher Sense of Efficacy Scale, Turkish version of the Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence Test and the Turkish version of the Warwick-Edinburg Mental Wellbeing Scale. Results revealed strong association among teacher emotional intelligence, teaching efficacy and psychological well-being. Psychological well-being appeared as a mediator between teachers’ emotional intelligence, teaching efficacy and burnout.

Keywords: Early childhood teachers, teaching efficacy, emotional intelligence, psychological well-being, burnout

School libraries through the eyes of primary school administrators: current status, functions and prospects

Erol Duran, Gökhan Demirhan & Savaş Demir

pp. 15 - 24   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijrte.2023.598.02


This study, which aims to determine the views of primary school administrators on school libraries, was conducted in phenomenological research design, one of the qualitative research methods. Answers to the following questions were sought in the research: What are the opinions of primary school administrators about the staff, equipment and space features of libraries in their schools? What are the opinions of primary school administrators about the contribution of school libraries to students? What are the opinions of primary school administrators about the purposes of using school libraries by students? What are the opinions of primary school administrators about increasing the effectiveness of school libraries? The data of the study were collected with a semi-structured interview form developed by the researchers. The study group consisted of 12 school administrators. According to the results of the study, it was found that school administrators think that school libraries are adequate in terms of space, equipment and content, and that the most important deficiencies are the lack of library staff and the lack of independent workspaces. In addition, primary school administrators stated that the most important contribution of school libraries is that they provide students with reading habits and desired social skills and behaviors.

Keywords: Library, School Library, School Administrators

An Analysis of MARS and Logistic Regression Methods in Educational Data Mining in Light of Some Performance Indicators

Hikmet Şevgin, Özlem Bezek Güre & Murat Kayri

pp. 25 - 40   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijrte.2023.598.03


This study aims to compare the MARS method and Logistic Regression (LR) methods from the family of nonlinear regression methods regarding correct classification rate, type I error, type II error and area under the ROC curve (AUC) metrics according to sample sizes using ABIDE data. For this purpose, Turkish achievement scores of 5000 randomly selected eighth grade students who participated in ABIDE 2016 and various demographic variables were used. The analyses show that in terms of correct classification rate, the LR method is more accurate in small sample size and the MARS method is more accurate in large sample size.  With respect to the area under the ROC curve, the LR method performs better at small sample sizes and the MARS method performs better at large sample sizes. In terms of Type I error rate, LR has less error rate at small sample size and more error rate at large sample size, while MARS has more error rate at small sample size and less error rate at large sample size. In terms of Type II error rate, the MARS method has less error rate than the LR in all other sample sizes except 1500 sample size. The MARS method yields better results than the LR in both error types. In order to obtain robust and error-free results in educational studies, using the LR method for small sample sizes and the MARS for large sample sizes is recommended.

Keywords: ABIDE, Logistic Regression, MARS, Correct Classification Rate, Area Under Curve

Determining the Classroom Teachers' Opinions on Museum Education

Fatih Mutlu Özbilen

pp. 41 - 55   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijrte.2023.598.04


The aim of this research is to determine the classroom teachers’ opinions on museum education. The research was conducted by adopting the qualitative method and case study pattern. The study group of the research consisted of 17 classroom teachers working in public primary schools in the Esenyurt district of Istanbul in the second term of the 2020-2021 academic year. Data were collected with a semi-structured interview form prepared by the researcher. Content analysis technique was adopted in the analyzes and the data obtained from the opinions of the teachers were divided into codes and categories. As a result of the research, the definitions of the teachers for museum education have been divided into the categories of “Culture and Heritage Education”, “Non-class Education”, “Experience-Based Education”, “Alternative Education”, “Art Education” and “Creative Thinking Education”. In addition, it has been determined that museum education is deemed necessary in terms of “Teaching and Awareness Raising”, “Learning Environment and Experience” and “Development of Personal and Social Skills” categories. Opinions about the teachers’ adequacy in museum education and their inadequacy have been expressed in similar numbers with the categories of “Being Adequate” and “Being Inadequate”, and the opinions on the planning and implementation of museum education have been explained under the categories of “Designing and Implementing Activities”, “Instructor and Planning”, “Preparation and Evaluation before the Museum Visit” and “Innovative Approaches and Resources”.

Keywords: Museum Education, Classroom Teacher, Primary Education

Emotional Intelligence Dimensions Scale (EIDS); A Study of Scale Development

Zafer Güney, Yiğit Ege Güney & Seray Topçu

pp. 56 - 68   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijrte.2023.598.05


The purpose of this research is to develop a valid and reliable scale of emotional intelligence dimensions. Before starting the scale development process, a comprehensive item pool was designed for the scale items by reviewing the literature in the first stage. In the second stage, content validity was examined by field experts' evaluations of the items. The scale prepared with 18 items was applied to the study group consisting of 358 people and validity and reliability analyses were conducted. The data collected in the study were analysed with Amos 22 and SPSS 20 application programs. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and reliability analyses were conducted for the construct validity analysis of the EIDS and reported.

Within the scope of EFA analysis, Kaiser- Meyer-Olkin (KMO) coefficient 0.839 (p = .000) and Bartlett's Test of Sphericity was significant at p< .01. As a result of the EFA analysis, it was determined that the scale, which was transformed into 14 items, had a structure consisting of three sub-factors explained as adaptation to the environment, managing emotions and problem solving. These factors were found to explain 59.71% of the total variance. As a result of the item analysis phase carried out to reveal the discrimination levels of the items prepared for the EIDS, it was seen that the difference between the items was significant at p< .01 level. Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient was found to be 0.875 for the EIDS prepared in the study.  With CFA, the scale consisting of 10 statements with 3 sub-dimensions can be called valid and reliable.

Keywords: Emotional intelligence dimensions, problem solving, scale development.

Digital Stories, Real Solutions: The Classroom Management Journey of Teacher Candidates

Özge Öztekin Bayır & Funda Ergüleç

pp. 69 - 91   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijrte.2023.598.06


The purpose of this study is to examine the views of teacher candidates regarding potential problems related to classroom management that they may encounter when they start their profession, as well as the problem-solving strategies they develop for these problems, through digital stories. Additionally, the experiences they went through during the process of creating digital stories are to be revealed. The emotions, thoughts, and experiences of teacher candidates in relation to the process were analyzed using the digital stories they prepared themselves. The study was conducted within the scope of the Classroom Management course during the spring semester of the 2021-2022 academic year. The participants of the study consist of 70 preschool teacher candidates who are in their third and fourth years at the Faculty of Education. Data was collected using digital stories created by teacher candidates and a form prepared by the researcher, consisting of two open-ended questions. The obtained data were analyzed using content analysis method. As a result of the analysis, the findings were categorized under three main themes: (i) classroom management problems that teacher candidates focus on in their digital stories, (ii) problem-solving strategies that teacher candidates emphasize in their digital stories, and (iii) experiences during the process of creating digital stories.

Keywords: Teacher candidate, classroom management, digital story

Empowering Children's Media Literacy in the YouTube Era: Insights into Critical Awareness

Tolga Kargın & Ramazan Demir

pp. 92 - 112   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijrte.2023.598.07


This study delves into the multifaceted realm of children's interaction with YouTube content, focusing on the development of media literacy skills. The increasing engagement of young YouTube users has prompted a comprehensive exploration of their viewing practices, perspectives, and understanding of the content they encounter. By analyzing student-teacher dialogues during the screening and discussion of various YouTube videos, this research provides insight into the extent to which children comprehend the messages and implications of the content they interact with. The findings highlight that children may not consistently recognize the underlying implicit messages within videos. Content producers skillfully embed these messages, underscoring the essential role of media literacy training in equipping users with the skills needed to navigate content more consciously. In this action research, a comprehensive media literacy educational module was developed and integrated into the student curriculum. The study employs pre-training and post-training analyses to assess the effectiveness of media literacy training in improving children's ability to identify objectionable content and foster critical evaluation skills. Fostering children's education and enhancing awareness of potentially harmful content are crucial for promoting safe and prudent online engagement. The study conclusively demonstrates the positive impact of media literacy training in cultivating children's awareness and encouraging thoughtful content consumption behaviors.

Keywords: Media literacy, elementary school, action research, YouTube

The Use of Postmodernist Elements From Children’s Literature: The Sample of the Book “The Blue Donkey and the Idle Lion”

Enes Yaşar

pp. 113 - 128   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijrte.2023.598.08


The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which the postmodernist elements used in the book Blue Donkey and Idle Lion activate children’s world of meaning and lead them to make active and creative readings. In contrast to traditional narratives, the author of the book deliberately leaves his stories unfinished at times, avoiding the role of dictating passive listeners to his heroes. Instead, he engages in conflicts with the characters and involves his readers in deciding how the stories should conclude. In an environment where the real and fictional worlds intertwine, a new perception of reality begins to emerge in the text, as writers, readers, and heroes pursue their stories together. For this reason, this multi-layered fictional world, in which the subject is activated with postmodernist elements, is considered worthy of examination. This study employed the document analysis method, one of the qualitative research methods. Purposeful sampling was used, focusing on the first book of the “Blue Donkey’s Adventures” series, “Blue Donkey and Idle Lion.” The narrative elements in the work were evaluated in line with postmodernist narrative techniques, and the analyses were examined using the content analysis method. In this context, the stories that employ postmodernist narrative techniques include readers in the text, elevating them to the level of authorship through the use of metafiction techniques. When the text is approached critically and questioningly, an environment is created where the reader can hear their voice within the narrative. Furthermore, the reader's perception of the heroes in the stories begins to shift and deviate from the traditional idealist positions, moving away from familiar roles. Finally, the author’s stories break the mechanistic, specific, and measurable understanding of time and space, creating a work in which subjective, creative, and multiple readings can be made.

Keywords: Children’s literature, postmodernist elements, short stories, creative and active reading.

Deep dive into Internationalisation and International Student Mobility (ISM) Through the Eyes of International Office Professionals (IPs)

Barış Eriçok

pp. 129 - 148   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijrte.2023.598.09


This study aims to reveal the problems experienced by international office professionals (IPs) in the mobility dimension of internationalisation. It is believed that the study will contribute to the internationalisation of higher education in Türkiye with the experiences of practitioners. Case study design is employed. Interviews were conducted with the voluntary IPs. This research explores five key themes in the context of International Offices (IOs) within Turkish universities. The first theme examines IO management, highlighting administrative structure complexities and non-uniform personnel titles. The absence of a well-defined administrative framework often leaves IOs with ambiguous roles, contributing to uncertainty within the field. The second theme, workload, reveals the diversity of tasks handled by International Office Professionals (IPs), extending beyond their job descriptions. These tasks include official correspondence, mobility project management, and even translation services. The lack of clear job descriptions and institutional structures results in role ambiguity. The third theme delves into student-related challenges, encompassing issues from language proficiency to student irresponsibility. IOs struggle to enforce disciplinary measures and face grant-related complications. The fourth theme uncovers academic and institutional problems, including language barriers and residence permit complexities. Finally, the fifth theme examines the role of academic unit coordinators and reveals the reluctance and poor support of many of them to assist mobility processes. These findings emphasize the need for clearer administrative structures, standardized job descriptions, and enhanced support systems to optimize IO operations and internationalization efforts in Turkish universities.

Keywords: Internationalisation, management of internationalisation, international student mobility, international office professionals

Early Childhood Educational Resources on ChatGPT: Review of Educational Blogs and Forums

Rahime Filiz Ağmaz

pp. 149 - 162   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijrte.2023.598.10


ChatGPT, an artificial intelligence model capable of generating dialogues and providing responses, emerged in the year 2022. Its introduction into usage sparked various discussions within the realm of education. This study aims to explore and analyze discussions surrounding the utilization of ChatGPT in pages that allow online content publication, such as blogs and websites, facilitating idea exchange on the same subject. Employing a netnographic approach with the inclusion of thematic analysis method ensures the comprehensiveness and reliability of the study. The focus of this research is directed towards the sharing of web page authors, and a sample of 59 web pages obtained from Google, Facebook, and Twitter searches constitutes the foundation of this investigation. Among these, four web pages pertaining to the preschool education domain were identified and subjected to an in-depth examination. Thematic analysis was employed for data analysis. The primary objective of the study is to elucidate the experiences and perspectives present in web pages, particularly concerning the potential applications of ChatGPT in preschool education. The research delves into notions concerning how ChatGPT can enrich the learning experience and be harnessed to support students. Furthermore, the study offers instances of how ChatGPT could be employed in the preschool context. The study also highlights ways in which educators and parents can employ ChatGPT to interact with their children and provide guidance during the preschool phase. The advantages of integrating ChatGPT into education, along with key considerations, are identified and illustrated with examples.

Keywords: blogging, ChatGPT, early childhood education

Trends In Digital Integration Among International Students of Turkish Language

Ayşe Dağ Pestil

pp. 163 - 182   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijrte.2023.598.11


Traditional restrictions on smartphone use in classrooms, aimed at enhancing students' focus, have evolved. Teachers now integrate smartphone apps, digital tools, and educational technology to engage students and enhance teaching effectiveness. Recognizing the digital preferences of language learners is essential. Feedback from students is a valuable educational resource that offers insights into methods, approaches, and curricula. Such insights guide educators and curriculum designers, shaping the future of language education. Given the advancements of this era and evolving learner needs, language teaching approaches must adapt, incorporating technological shifts into syllabuses, schedules, and curriculums. However, determining the most effective digital tools from the learners' perspective and understanding why remains a question. This research delves into the perspectives and trends of international students learning Turkish in a university in Türkiye, aiming to uncover their inclinations towards technology-based resources and digital tools. The study's research questions explore the extent of digital tool usage among foreign language learners, the specific digital tools they utilize, the reasons behind their choices, and the skills they apply through these tools. Furthermore, this article addresses the importance of digital literacy for both students and educators.

Keywords: digital tendencies of international language learners, Turkish as a foreign language, digital literacy, foreign language learning and digitization

English Teachers' Attitudes and Opinions Towards Artificial Intelligence

Selim Soner Sütçü & Elif Sütçü

pp. 183 - 193   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijrte.2023.598.12


The field of Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) has undergone tremendous developments during the last decades and with its latest affordances, it has become popular topic of educators as in all walks of life. Diverse Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies are being employed more and more often in a range of educational situations and domains, including language learning, in order to accomplish a number of learning goals. However, this intensive and rapid emergence has raised some uncertainties about the effective adoption of AI tools into their language classes by educators. In this respect, this study addresses the attitudes and opinions of English teachers in order to shed light on some uncertainties on this issue. In this study, case study design was employed to determine the general attitudes of English teachers towards AI. The research's findings indicated that instructors are generally optimistic about the acceptance and adoption of AI applications in language instruction and they believe that their usage could contribute to language learning, but they have some reservations though.

Keywords: Artificial intelligence, language learning, teachers’ attitudes.

Positive and Negative Factors Shaping University Students’ Development of Life Skills

Harun Serpil

pp. 194 - 207   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijrte.2023.598.13


In today's world, it is more important than ever for university students to have a strong set of life skills in addition to their academic qualifications. The job market is becoming increasingly competitive, and employers are looking for employees who can think critically, solve problems, and communicate effectively. Additionally, the world is becoming increasingly complex and interconnected, and students need to be able to adapt to new challenges and thrive in this environment. The aim of this study is to reveal the factors that shape the life skills of university students. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected through two open-ended survey questions from 176 students (91 males, 85 females) studying in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th year of five different faculties and a vocational school of two state universities (Uludağ and Kastamonu), who wrote their answers on the form handed out to them  by the researcher. The collected data were analyzed by using SPSS. The results show that students mostly reported the positive contributions of family, internship experiences, personal efforts, reading books, support from close friends and the supportive social environment. As negative factors, the fact that previous education was based on memorization and exam-oriented, the cultural mindset of the place they live, the restrictions imposed by the family, spending too much time on social media, the lack of an environment that enhances personal development, the family being too protective and even the use of physical violence and lack of social support were highlighted. To improve their students’ life skills and prepare them better for life, universities can offer courses and workshops on life skills such as time management, financial literacy, communication skills, conflict resolution, and stress management. In addition, they can provide opportunities for students to get involved in extracurricular activities to develop a variety of life skills, such as leadership, teamwork, and problem-solving. They can also cooperate with employers and community organizations to offer internships and volunteer opportunities to help students to gain real-world experience and develop their life skills. This study included participants only from two state universities. Further research may include multiple universities (both state and private) and a higher number of participants. It can also include the views of faculty members and parents. Researchers can also explore the impact of life skills on student success, develop effective interventions for developing life skills, and examine the role of different stakeholders and factors in supporting student development of life skills.

Keywords: Higher education, university students, life skills