International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 1308-951X

Volume 8 Issue 2 (June 2017)

Original Articles

Speech Act of Refusal among English Language Teaching Students

Mahsa Rezvani, Darya Abdalrahman Ismael & Samet Tok

pp. 1 - 11


Speech acts as the elements of communicative competence refer to the actions such as apology, request, complaint, suggestion and refusal. Refusal as a face-threatening act for the hearers is one of the most complex issues which is sensitive to social variables including gender and education.  Accordingly, the present study was set out to investigate the refusal strategies that are mostly used by English Language teaching (ELT) students. To this end, fifty ELT postgraduate students form Eastern Mediterranean University in Famagusta, Cyprus, participated in this study. The data was obtained from 12-items written Discourse Completion Task (DCT) and analyzed based on the classification of refusal strategies proposed by Beebe et al. (1990). The results suggested that the participated students in this study mostly demonstrated preference for indirect refusal. Additionally, Men mostly employed direct strategies to an interlocutor of lower status, while for women to an interlocutor of equal status. Furthermore, women tended to use more adjuncts than men in all three situations. Among four ethnic groups (Persian, Kurdish, Turkish & Arab), Adjuncts were mostly used by Persian students, while Turkish students preferred to use direct strategies more than other groups. Moreover, this study has some implications towards the theories underpinning it.

Keywords: ELT students, ethnicity, gender, pragmatics, refusal strategy

Effects of Digital Environmental Photography and Video on the conceptual Knowledge, Skills and Eco-friendly Habits of Students

Ananta Kumar Jena, Rajib Debnath, Joy Das, Somnath Gupta & Satarupa Bhattacharjee

pp. 12 - 27


The study aimed to assess the effects of digital environmental photography and video on the conceptual knowledge, skills and eco-friendly habits of the elementary students over the traditional approach. 30 students of Class VIII of school I participated in the control group, and 20 students of class VIII students of school II assigned for digital environmental photography and video treatment. Non-equivalent pre-test posttest quasi-experimental design used and the effects of digital environmental photography and video on the conceptual knowledge, skill and habit of students over traditional approach assessed through ANCOVA and regression analysis. It resulted that there was statistically significant difference in the mean conceptual knowledge, skill and competency, and eco-friendly habit score of the participants of digital environmental photography and video group over the traditional group. 

Keywords: conceptual knowledge, digital environmental photography, skills eco-friendly habits, video