International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 1308-951X

Volume 1 Issue 4 (September 2010)

Original Articles

Relationship between the Motivation Levels of the Music Teacher Candidates related to Leaining Musical Instruments and Their Selections of Career Training


pp. 1 - 14


 This study examined the relationship between the motivation levels of candidate music teachers towards instrument lessons and their preferences for career education. The research universe comprises music teacher candidates studying at Music Education Sections Departments of Fine Arts in Education Faculties and the study sample comprises first, second, third and fourth grade students studying at Music Education Sections Departments of Fine Arts in Education Faculties of Marmara University, Gazi University, Dokuz Eylül University and Abant Đzzet Baysal University.

A “Personal Data Questionnaire” and “Motivation Scale for Individual Instrument Lesson” were applied as measurement instruments.

This study investigated students’ motivational differences according to four sub-dimensions (interest, educational atmosphere, environment, professional expectation) of the Motivation Scale between

  • Choosing musical teacher training willingly
  • Planning to follow a different profession (except for Music teacher) after graduation.

The results showed that the motivation levels of the students towards instrument lessons differed significantly in accordance with the ‘career aspirations’ variable. Participants who willingly pursued a career as a music teacher scored higher in the motivation scale sub-dimension of ‘interest’. 

Keywords: Motivation, Instrument Education, Career Education

Examination of Pre-School Teachers’ Beliefs About Science Education


pp. 15 - 25


The aim of this study is to find out preschool teachers’ beliefs about preschool children’s ability to learn science concepts and subjects and in connection with their beliefs examine their perception of self-efficacy in science teaching. Sampling of the study is composed of 100 teachers who are working in preschool institutions. Beliefs about Reformed Science Teaching and Learning (BARSTL) which is developed by Sampson and Benton and adapted into Turkish by Büyüktaşkapu is used as data collection device. This scale is prepared to identify teachers’ beliefs about science teaching and education. It consists of 32 questions that reflect both current science education philosophy in early childhood period and traditional science education philosophy. In addition to that The Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Inventory (STEBI) developed by Riggs and Enochs in 1990 and adapted into Turkish by Bıkmaz in 2002 is used as data collection device too. Gathered data was analyzed with frequency, percentage, arithmetic mean, standard deviation and Pearson correlation coefficient importance test. According to study results it is seen that preschool teachers’ beliefs about their self efficacy in science education is average and they still adopt traditional methods instead of constructivist methods in science teaching. Teachers with high self efficacy in science teaching prefer to use traditional methods in science teaching. This result indicates that in preschool science teaching children are transferred shallow information in many subjects. On the other hand the aim of science education should be in fewer subjects children could learn in detail so children can develop their science skills and construct their own information themselves. 

Keywords: Science teaching in preschool period, constructivist approach, teaching efficacy belief

Language Proficiency Level of English Language Teacher Trainees in Turkey

Uğur Recep Çetinavcı & Aysun Yavuz

pp. 26 - 54


The conduct of this study was motivated by the relative dearth of research in Turkey to investigate the language proficiency of foreign language teacher trainees. To obtain student views about the issue, data were collected through a questionnaire administered to 36 teacher trainees from the 2nd, 3rd and 4th year students each in an English language teacher training program in Turkey. Besides, 36 volunteering teacher trainees from the 1st and 3rd year students each were given the same State Staff Foreign Language Proficiency Exam (KPDS) to shed light on the questionnaire results. The findings point to the participants’ complaint and problem of English decreasing in proficiency level throughout their teacher training process and their attribution of this problem mainly to the curriculum and teaching practices, which should lead every stakeholder, but firstly teacher trainers, to reconsider foreign language teacher education in Turkey. 

Keywords: Language Proficiency, Foreign Language Teacher Trainees, Curriculum, Teacher Education

Primary Teachers’ Beliefs about Teacher Talk in ESL Classrooms: a Perspective from India


pp. 55 - 65


‘Belief’ is a common concept in various research literatures in sociology, anthropology, psychology, philosophy and many other disciplines. Despite the diversity in the use of this term in educational context, the prior research and reviews on teachers’ beliefs about teaching/learning contribute to an agreement on some characteristics of teacher beliefs (Fang, 1996; Kagan, 1992; Nespor, 1987; Pajares, 1992; Woolfolk Hoy, Davis, & Pape, 2006). Teachers’ belief systems are built up gradually over time and consist of both subjective and objective dimensions. Teachers’ beliefs influence their consciousness, teaching attitude, teaching methods and teaching policies, and finally, learners’ development. Primary teachers’ beliefs regarding teaching/learning English has been the subject of many studies over the last few decades. As Richards and Lockhart (1996:29) state, ‘what teachers do is a reflection of what they know and believe’. Teachers’ belief system plays decisive role in teaching/learning of English at primary level. Many researchers have studied beliefs of teachers like beliefs about language learning, about learners, and about themselves as language teachers (Liao & Chiang, 2003; Richards, Tung, & Ng, 1992; Yang, 2000); but there is very less study carried out on teachers’ beliefs about teacher talk and teacher talk features. The present paper focuses on primary teachers’ beliefs about teacher talk and teacher talk features in ESL classrooms. Ten in-service primary English teachers (five from English Medium and five from Marathi Medium primary schools) are the subjects of the present paper. The paper discusses these teachers’ beliefs regarding the amount of teacher talk, use of mother tongue (i.e. Marathi), and some teacher talk features like questioning, paraphrasing and repetition, and feedback.

Keywords: teacher talk, teacher beliefs, English for younger learners

Post Literacy and Continuing Education for Human Development (PLCEHD) Project-1 in Bangladesh

Mohammad Saidur RAHMANI, Farzana YASMIN, Monzil Ara BEGUM & Jesmin ARA

pp. 66 - 81


The study was conducted to find out the activities of Post Literacy and Continuing Education for Human Development (PLCEHD) Project-1, which is to involve the target population in a life long educational process. There is a provision of 6 months duration learners need based life skills technical trade training courses in the PLCEHD Project-1”. It will be benefited about 1.656 (revised 1.37) million rural peoples aged between 11-45 years from 6900 training centers, 232 (revised 205) upazilas, 32 districts under 6 divisions of Bangladesh. The general objective of the project was development of human resources of the country by providing post literacy and continuing education. It emerged that children of the poor people of the country were also hard to reach in the education system because investment flows were against them and because their communities did not think that their education was necessary. 

Keywords: Post Literacy, Continuing Education, Non-Formal Education.

Democratic Attitudes of Social Studies Pre-service Teachers

E. Özlem YİĞİT & Kerem ÇOLAK

pp. 82 - 95


In modern world, it is expected from citizens to access and use information, think critically, respect to human rights and have democratic attitude. In this context, education has an important role. Education promotes democracy in two ways: At first, it enables a culture of democracy and second it leads to a greater prosperity. Individuals learn democratic attitudes and behaviors in their home environment and in schools. In educational systems which are democratic, democracy culture will develop. Because of this, the main aim of this study is to determine the democratic attitudes of social studies student teachers. This research was carried out with survey method. The attitude scale was used to fix democratic attitudes of social studies student teachers. The research group consisted of two hundred social studies student teachers who attended in four public universities in Turkey. The qualitative data of this study was collected through standardized open-ended interview questions. In the results of the study; according to gender, mothers’ educational background and fathers’ educational background, there was a meaningful difference between democratic attitude levels of social studies student teachers. Besides, the democratic attitude level of mothers and fathers having graduated from high schools was higher than the democratic attitude level of mothers and fathers having graduated from primary school. On the other hand, there wasn’t a meaningful difference between any universities according to university variable.

Keywords: Democracy, democratic attitudes, social studies pre-service teachers, social studies

Elementary School Music Lesson Curriculum for the year 2006 Throughout the Period of Entry into the European Union


pp. 96 - 109


 Ataturk, who comprehended the “administration and music relationship” very well within the political period of community administrations in the history of the world in terms of politics, society and social psychology, knew the importance of that Turkish Republic was able to take place in the international area with respect to social, political, cultural, scientific and artistic points and that its relationship with modern basic music education required to be given to Turkish society. In addition, he started many studies related to basic music education with the establishment of the Republic. Today, the period related to the participation in the European Union continues currently. Many obstacles have being faced in terms of political, economical, legal, social and cultural aspects within the period of participation in the European Union. One of the most important elements for the cultural aspect is music. With respect to this subject, Turkish Republic has to determine governmental policies for the integration of Turkish music education, culture, art, and industry with modern world throughout the EU period. In order to perform the basic music education concerning the modernization of social music culture, it is required that basically certain factors coexist as they have modern characteristics. These can be classified as in the following: Music lessons in the curriculums of formal education institutions, Music Teachers, Music curriculums, Music education environment, Musical artists, Music education resources, Contributions of musical industry, and Effects and contributions of mass media. With this study to be made, elementary education music curriculum of the year 2006 which is the curriculum still being applied in general music education will be tried to be analyzed in terms of music curriculum development based on literature review and view through application within the framework of effects and contributions throughout the period of participation in EU. 

Keywords: General Music Education, Curriculum, European Union, Adaptation