International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 1308-951X

Volume 13 Issue 2 (June 2022)

Issue Information

Issue Information

pp. i - vi


Keywords: Issue Information

Original Articles

The Itinerant Teacher in Macau: Cultural Issues, Challenges, & Conflicts

Chris Forlin & Monie Mei Chan Cheang

pp. 1 - 14


Macau SAR is adopting an inclusive approach to education for learners with special needs. To support this approach, itinerant support services were first introduced by the Macau Government in the 2010/2011 academic year through the provision of itinerant teachers. From a small number of three teachers initially, the service now involves 30 teachers. Their expected role is to support inclusive education by assisting regular schoolteachers in adjusting their teaching for students with special needs. A hermeneutic phenomenological approach was employed to examine the IT program in supporting the implementation of inclusive education in Macau. The findings present a comprehensive review of the service from the perspective of 93% of the itinerant teachers. Focus group interviews identified challenges, conflicts, and cultural issues they reportedly encounter in undertaking their role which need addressing if the service is to be sustainable and effective. These include school expectations, minimal understanding of and commitment to inclusive education, policy, and the need for greater flexibility, together with role conflict and adaptation to the diverse cultural situation. Discussion focuses on a range of recommendations and potential future directions for enhancing the itinerant teacher model in Macau.

Keywords: Macau SAR, education, inclusion, itinerant support teacher, special education needs, collaboration

The relationship between Bullying and Student’s academic performance

Gulnura Tukeshova

pp. 15 - 22


The main purpose of this study is to understand how young children experience bullying at schools in Kyrgyzstan, and what relationship does such experience has with their academic performance? The research was conducted at Naryn regional boarding school and up to 100 participants aging 13-17(8-9-10 11th graders) have been recruited for this study. Hence, quantitative research investigated the relationship between bullying and a student's academic achievement, and the survey was used as a research instrument. The research found a minimal negative reaction to bullying and its effects on their studies by the majority of students. For example, for the statement: “I had a low motivation to learn after experiencing bullying”, 35% answered as unsure, 34% disagreed, and 30% of respondents agreed. This indicates that students are evenly split as to whether experiencing bullying lowered their motivation to study.

Keywords: bullying, academic performance, impact of bullying, school safety.

Teacher Educators’ Interpersonal Behavior: Difference in Perceptions among Trainee Teachers from Public and Private Pakistani Teacher Education Institutions

Shafaque Fatima

pp. 23 - 36


Research into the education system of Pakistan has revealed that disparities exist in various aspects between public and private sector institutions.  However, the interpersonal relationship between teacher educators and the trainee teachers in public and private teacher education institutions has been rarely addressed to understand the disparity between the perceptions of these two groups. This study investigates the differences in perceptions of trainee teachers at the public and private teacher education institutions about their teacher educators’ interpersonal behaviour. The data were collected through convenience sampling from 193 trainee teachers of one public and two private teacher education institutions of Karachi. The results suggest significant differences between the perceptions of trainee teachers of public and private institutions.  Trainee teachers from private institutions rated their teacher educators higher on the variables of Leadership, Friendliness, Student Freedom, and Understanding, whereas trainee teachers from the public institution rated their instructors higher on Strictness, Admonishing, Uncertain, and Dissatisfied. In the second phase of the sequential study, focus group discussions were conducted in the public institution. The results revealed that significant differences in teaching quality prevail in public and private sector teacher education programs. This study adds to the body of research into the affective domain of teacher education programs in the Pakistani context.

Keywords: teaching quality, teacher education, interpersonal behavior, teacher educator, public education, private education.

Problems encountered with in the physiotherapy and rehabilitation course and solution recommendations

Serkan Yıldırım & Hafi̇ze Keser

pp. 37 - 44


It was designed in the case evaluation pattern included in the qualitative research tradition in order to determine the problems which the scholars serving in the physiotherapy and rehabilitation major program encounters in their courses and the solution recommendations related with these problems. Consisting the study group of in the scholars actively lecturing in Physiotherapy (PT) courses is very important with respect to determine the problems encountered with in the application process, not the problems possible to encountered with in the courses in the scope of physiotherapy and rehabilitation (PTR) program. Accordingly, the data related with the problems and the solution recommendations for these problems, which are experienced during this process by the lecturers, was taken through an open-ended questionnaire. The problems encountered by the lecturers serving in the PTR program, who participated in the research, in their classes and the solution recommendations related with these problems were determined by analyzing the answers they gave to the open-ended questions. It was found out as a result of the analyses made that the lecturers deal with the problems related with the courses in two subdimensions as the problems for the interaction in the learning environment and the problems experienced for the PT curriculum and contents and that they offer solution recommendations accordingly.

Keywords: physiotherapy and rehabilitation, physiotherapist training, learning and teaching environment, learning and teaching process, problems