International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 1308-951X

Volume 7 Issue 2 (June 2016)

Original Articles

Turkish Sentence Stress

Didem Çetin & Mustafa Volkan Coşkun

pp. 1 - 8


One of the suprasegmental elements of a language, stress is one of the basic elements necessary for the correct communication and understanding of a message. According to Coşkun (2010: 204), besides leading to differences in the meanings of words, it makes words and phrases the speaker wants to emphasize and wants the listener to pay a special attention to marked; while it contributes to the correct construction of a message that is relayed by the speakers, it helps the listener to understand the message correctly.  Though each word and phrase has its separate stress, in a sentence, stress is only on one word. While it is widely held belief that in Turkish, stress in on the word preceding the verb, the place of the stress may change depending on the emotional state of the speaker and the message to be relayed. The purpose of the current study is to elicit the stress system in Turkish by analyzing speech samples taken from different television programs in terms of their stress patterns. Within the context of the current study employing the descriptive method speeches from different television programs were recorded by means of Adobe Audition 1.0 voice program, and these recordings were analyzed in terms of the basic frequency through Praat 3.8.47 voice analysis program. 

Keywords: Stress, Sentence Stress, Stress Analysis

A Study of Effectiveness of Life Skill Training of Training Programme on Self-Esteem of Teacher Trainees at B.Ed. Level – Pilot Study

Amit Hemant Mishal

pp. 9 - 17


Self–esteem, like self-efficacy and ability of adjust, is not present, at same rate, among all the individuals though these abilities are present in every individual to some extent. Self-esteem, self-efficacy and adjustment, make the person grow higher and higher and achieve success at the fastest rate. Most of the successful people do possess these abilities at high level, whereas weak and mostly unsuccessful lack these abilities in them. If one want to  improve and enhance one’s self-esteem, either a person have to develop of its own , or either gain through every day experiences or gain by undergoing training  for gaining life skills which may help to improve  and  enhance it. Every common man , students, professionals in day to day life come across situations/ and varied experience , in their personal and professional life , where they are unable to cope  with stress , emotions  especially anger, empathise , make decisions, solve problems, effectively communicate and listen , form strong interpersonal bonds, manage time . Due to lack of  these life skills  they are unable to  grow , prosper , achieve success  , which if they would have had would  have helped to improve and enhance their self-esteem, self-efficacy and adjustment and make them successful . Life skills for improving self-esteem, self-efficacy and adjustment include self-awareness, effective communication skills, interpersonal relationships, time management, coping stress, managing emotions, creative thinking, critical thinking, empathy and few others. These skills are very important skills essential for effective functioning of the life. There are many life skills, if developed by providing ‘life skill training’ can help the person to achieve success in his life. Researcher has designed a ‘training program’ especially for pre-service teacher trainees. Researcher have conducted a pilot study and have attempted to study effectiveness of  the life skill training of the developed ‘ training programme’  on self-esteem of teacher trainees at B.Ed. level , further performed  analysis to measure the effect of the developed ‘training program’ on self-esteem and  have presented the findings of the study conducted . The findings of the pilot study revealed that life skill training of ‘training programme’ developed by the researcher was effective on self-esteem of teacher trainees at B.Ed. level.

Keywords: Self-Esteem, Life Skills, Life Skill Training, B.Ed., Teacher Trainees, Training Programme