International Association of Educators   |  ISSN: 1308-951X

Original article | International Journal of Research in Teacher Education 2018, Vol. 9(2) 26-35

The Relation between Teachers` Self-Reported Metacognitive Awareness and Teaching with Metacognition

Nesrin Ozturk

pp. 26 - 35   |  Manu. Number: MANU-1803-11-0001

Published online: June 29, 2018  |   Number of Views: 503  |  Number of Download: 917


Teachers’ competency with or delivery of metacognition instruction may show variations. Although limited research offered pessimistic findings of classroom metacognition instruction, the factors have not been examined adequately. Therefore, this study examined a) the relation between teachers’ metacognitive awareness and teaching with metacognition and b) whether a professional development module of teaching metacognition might impact teaching with metacognition. Findings confirmed that metacognitive awareness and teaching with metacognition were correlated. However, a day-long module might not be sufficient to change practices of teaching with metacognition. It is, therefore, suggested teachers study metacognition explicitly and for prolonged periods. 

Keywords: metacognitive awareness, teaching with metacognition, teaching for metacognition, teaching metacognitively, survey research

How to Cite this Article?

APA 6th edition
Ozturk, N. (2018). The Relation between Teachers` Self-Reported Metacognitive Awareness and Teaching with Metacognition. International Journal of Research in Teacher Education, 9(2), 26-35.

Ozturk, N. (2018). The Relation between Teachers` Self-Reported Metacognitive Awareness and Teaching with Metacognition. International Journal of Research in Teacher Education, 9(2), pp. 26-35.

Chicago 16th edition
Ozturk, Nesrin (2018). "The Relation between Teachers` Self-Reported Metacognitive Awareness and Teaching with Metacognition". International Journal of Research in Teacher Education 9 (2):26-35.


    Anastasiou, D., & Griva, E. (2009). Awareness of reading strategy use and reading comprehension among poor and good readers. Elementary Education Online, 8(2), 283–297.

    Baker, L. (2017). The development of metacognitive knowledge and control of comprehension: Contributors and consequences. In K. Mokhtari (Ed.), Improving reading comprehension through metacognitive reading strategies instruction (pp. 1–31). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

    Baker, L., & Brown, A. L. (1984). Metacognitive skills and reading. In P. D. Pearson, R. Barr, J. L. Kamil, & P. Rosenthal (Eds.), Handbook of reading research (Vol. 1, pp. 353–394). New York: Longman.

    Balcikanli, C. (2011). Metacognitive awareness inventory for teachers (MAIT). Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 9(3), 1309–1332.

    Boulware-Gooden, R., Carreker, S., Thornhill, A., & Joshi, R. M. (2007). Instruction of metacognitive strategies enhances reading comprehension and vocabulary achievement of third-grade students. The Reading Teacher, 61(1), 70–77.

    Çer, E., & Şahin, E. (2016). Improving Reading Comprehension Skills with Children’s Books through Metacognitive Strategy: The Turkish Context. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 4(9), 109–119. Retrieved from

    Cross, D. R., & Paris, S. G. (1988). Developmental and instructional analyses of children’s metacognition and reading comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80(2), 131–142.

    Cubukcu, F. (2008). Enhancing vocabulary development and reading comprehension through metacognitive strategies. Issues in Educational Research, 18(1), 1–11.

    Curwen, M. S., Miller, R. G., White-Smith, K. A., & Calfee, R. C. (2010). Increasing teachers’ metacognition develops students’ higher learning during content area literacy instruction: Findings from the read-write cycle project. Issues in Teacher Education, 19(2), 127–151.

    Desimone, L. M. (2009). Improving impact studies of teachers’ professional development: Toward better conceptualizations and measures. Educational Researcher, 38(3), 181–199.

    Desoete, A., Roeyers, H., & Buysse, A. (2001). Metacognition and mathematical problem solving in grade 3. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 34(5), 435–447.

    Dole, J. A., Duffy, G. G., Roehler, L. R., & Pearson, P. D. (1991). Moving from the old to the new: Research on reading comprehension instruction. Review of Educational Research, 61(2), 239–264.

    Duffy, G. G. (1993). Rethinking strategy instruction: Four teachers’ development and low achievers’ understandings. Elementary School Journal, 93(3), 231.

    Duffy, G. G. (2002). The case for direct explanation of strategies. In C. C. Block & M. Pressley (Eds.), Comprehension instruction: Research-based best practices (pp. 28–41). New York: Guilford.

    Duke, N. K., & Pearson, P. D. (2008). Effective practices of developing reading comprehension. Theory, Research, Reflection on Teaching and Learning, 189(1/2), 107–122.

    Fisher, R. (1998). Thinking about thinking: Developing metacognition in children. Early Child Development and Care, 141(1), 1–15.

    Fisher, R. (2002). Shared thinking: metacognitive modelling in the literacy hour. Reading, 36(2), 63–67.

    Flavell, J. H. (1979). Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new area of cognitive-developmental inquiry. American Psychologist, 34(10), 906–911.

    Gourgey, A. F. (1998). Metacognition in basic skills instruction. Instructional Science, 26, 81–96.

    Hartman, H. J. (2001). Teaching metacognitively. In H. J. Hartman (Ed.), Metacognition in learning and instruction: Theory, research,and practice (pp. 149–169). Boston: Kluwer.

    Hawley, W. D., & Valli, L. (2007). Design principles for learner-centered professional development. In W. . Hawley (Ed.), The keys to effective schools: Educational reform as continuous improvement (pp. 117–137). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

    Kerndl & Aberšek, M. K. (2012). Teachers’ competence for developing reader’s reception metacognition. Problems of Education in the 21st Century, 46(1979), 52–61.

    Klingner, J. K., Vaughn, S., & Schumm, J. S. (1998). Collaborative strategic reading during social studies in heterogeneous fourth-grade classrooms. The Elementary School Journal, 99(1), 3–22.

    Michalsky, T., Mevarech, Z. R., & Haibi, L. (2009). Elementary school children reading scientific texts: Effects of metacognitive instruction. The Journal of Educational Research, 102(5), 363–376.

    Muñiz-Swicegood, M. (1994). The effects of metacognitive reading strategy training on the reading performance and student reading analysis strategies of third grade bilingual students. Bilingual Research Journal, 18, 83–97.

    Nelson, T. O. (1996). Consciousness and metacognition. American Psychologist, 51(2), 102–116.

    Schraw, G. (1998). Promoting general metacognitive awareness. Instructional Science, 26(1), 113–125.

    Schraw, G., & Dennison, R. S. (1994). Assessing metacognitive awareness. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 19(4), 460–475.

    Tanner, K. D. (2012). Promoting student metacognition. Cell Biology Education, 11(2), 113–120.

    Van den Bergh, L., Ros, A., & Beijaard, D. (2014). Improving teacher feedback during active learning: Effects of a professional development program. American Educational Research Journal, 51(4), 772–809.

    Van Keer, H., & Vanderlinde, R. (2010). The impact of cross-age peer tutoring on third and sixth graders’ reading strategy awareness, reading strategy use, and reading comprehension. Middle Grades Research Journal, 5(1), 33–45.

    Veenman, M. V. J. (2016). Metacognition. In P. Afflerbach (Ed.), Handbook of individual differences in reading (pp. 26–40). New York: Routledge.

    Veenman, M. V. J., Kerseboom, L., & Imthorn, C. (2000). Test anxiety and metacognitive skillfulness: Availability versus production deficiencies. Anxiety, Stress & Coping, 13(December), 391–412.

    Veenman, M. V. J., Van Hout-Wolters, B. H. A. M., & Afflerbach, P. (2006). Metacognition and learning: Conceptual and methodological considerations. Metacognition and Learning, 1(1), 3–14.

    Webster-Wright, A. (2009). Reframing professional development through understanding authentic professional learning. Review of Educational Research, 79(2), 702–739.

    Wilson, N. S. (2009). Questioning as thinking: A metacognitive framework. Middle School Journal, (November), 84–90.